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What is Critical Appraisal?
The Centre for Evidence Based Medicine defines Critical Appraisal as the systematic evaluation of clinical research papers in order to establish whether a study:
- Addresses a clearly focused question?
- Uses valid methods to address this question?
- Finds valid results which are important?
- Finds results which are applicable to my patient or population?
If the study in question does not adequately answer all of these questions, it may not be worthwhile continuing with.
Critical Appraisal Worksheets (CEBM)
The Centre for Evidence Based Medicine provides worksheets to assist with the critical appraisal of various publication types:
Each worksheet is a downloadable MSWord document which follows a standard way of appraising evidence based on the publication type.
Critical Appraisal Tutorials
Critical Appraisal Checklists - CASP
Critical Appraisals Skills Programme (CASP) provides checklists to support appraisal of a variety of different study types, including:
These are provided in:
- PDF format which can be filled in online
- "Print and Fill" format which can be downloaded
They are free to use and download under the Creative Commons License.
Critical Appraisal Books
Critical Appraisal for FCEM by
Publication Date: 2014-12-12
The ability to read a paper, judge its quality, the importance of its results, and make a decision about whether to change practice based on the information given, is a core skill for all doctors. To be able to do this quickly and efficiently is, without a doubt, a skill needed by all time-pressured emergency doctors and one which is tested in the Fellowship of the College of Emergency Medicine (FCEM) examination. Critical Appraisal for FCEM is the essential revision source for all those who want to pass the critical appraisal section of this exam. It is also required reading for those who want to incorporate evidence-based medicine into their everyday clinical practice. Features: Helps you become truly competent in critical appraisal Provides information in "Spod's Corner," which helps you reach the next level and excel Prepares you for the Critical Topic Review Contains two fictional practice papers to test and practise your knowledge With its relaxed conversational style--yet crammed with essential information, key tips, and advice--this book is indispensable for all those wanting to achieve success in their FCEM and MCEM examinations.
How to Read a Paper by
Publication Date: 2019-05-06
Required reading in many medical and healthcare institutions, How to Read a Paper is a clear and wide-ranging introduction to evidence-based medicine and healthcare, helping readers to understand its central principles, critically evaluate published data, and implement the results in practical settings. Author Trisha Greenhalgh guides readers through each fundamental step of inquiry, from searching the literature to assessing methodological quality and appraising statistics. How to Read a Paper addresses the common criticisms of evidence-based healthcare, dispelling many of its myths and misconceptions, while providing a pragmatic framework for testing the validity of healthcare literature. Now in its sixth edition, this informative text includes new and expanded discussions of study bias, political interference in published reports, medical statistics, big data and more. Offers user-friendly guidance on evidence-based healthcare that is applicable to both experienced and novice readers Authored by an internationally recognised practitioner and researcher in evidence-based healthcare and primary care Includes updated references, additional figures, improved checklists and more How to Read a Paper is an ideal resource for healthcare students, practitioners and anyone seeking an accessible introduction to evidence-based healthcare.
Medical Statistics by
Publication Date: 2014-10-06
Medical Statistics provides the necessary statistical tools to enable researchers to undertake and understand evidence-based clinical research. It is a practical guide to conducting statistical research and interpreting statistics in the context of how the participants were recruited, how the study was designed, what types of variables were used, what effect size was found, and what the P values mean. It guides researchers through the process of selecting the correct statistics and show how to best report results for presentation and publication. Clear and concise explanations, combined with plenty of examples and tabulated explanations are based on the authors' popular medical statistics courses. The table of contents is divided into sections according to whether data are continuous or categorical in nature as this distinction is fundamental to selecting the correct statistics. Each chapter provides a clear step-by-step guide to each statistical test with practical instructions on how to generate and interpret the numbers, and present the results as scientific tables or graphs. The chapters conclude with critical appraisal guidelines to help researchers review the reporting of results from each type of statistical test. This new edition includes a new chapter on repeated measures and mixed models and a helpful glossary of terms provides an easy reference that applies to all chapters.
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