This site provides a national easily-accessible repository of clinical guidance to equip the clinical community in Ireland with the requisite information whilst working within the current COVID-19 environment.
The site contains and enables access to:
Interim Clinical Guidance published on this site is under the governance of CCO CAG. This guidance takes into consideration advice provided by NPHET relating to the current COVID-19 health emergency.
The content of the site is not meant to replace clinical judgment or specialist consultation, but rather strengthen clinical management of patients and provide up-to-date and relevant guidance. The guidance is iterative in nature and is subject to ongoing review to ensure alignment with emerging evidence and updates to national guidelines. This guidance must be read in conjunction with the National HSE Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) Guidance for Possible or Confirmed COVID-19
The average face mask does not limit the flow of oxygen to the lungs, even in people with severe lung diseases.
For healthy, active people, wearing a face mask during vigorous exercise has minimal effect on arterial or muscle oxygen levels and no effects on exercise performance.
WHO advises not to wear masks during vigorous intensity physical activity because masks may reduce the ability to breathe comfortably.
Face masks, including N95 respirators, surgical masks and cloth face-masks have small effect on the work of breathing, blood gases and other physiological parameters during physical activity, even with heavy/maximal exercise.
In a study following 10 nurses over two 12-hour shifts, the only negative physiologic change resulting from long-term respiratory protection use was elevated CO2 levels, with CO2 increasing over time. However, these changes were not clinically relevant25.
Effects of prolonged mask and respirator use in healthcare settings include headaches, skin sensitivity, acne, itchy nose, and excessive sweating around the mouth.
Frequent breaks, improved hydration and rest, skin care, and newly designed, more comfortable masks are recommendations for future management of adverse effects related to prolonged mask use.
Produced by the members of the National Health Library and Knowledge Service Evidence Team†. These literature reviews collate the best available evidence at the time of writing and do not replace clinical judgement or guidance. Emerging literature or subsequent developments in respect of technologies may require amendment to the information or sources listed in the document. Although all reasonable care has been taken in the compilation of content, the National Health Library and Knowledge Service Evidence Team makes no representations or warranties expressed or implied as to the accuracy or suitability of the information or sources listed in this document. These literature reviews are the property of the National Health Library and Knowledge Service and subsequent re-use or distribution in whole or in part should include acknowledgement of the service.
This collection of literature reviews was created between April and July 2020 by members of the National Health Library and Knowledge Service Evidence Team to support the Health Service Executive National Telehealth Steering Group. Each literature review relates to innovations in telemedicine as applicable to a specific condition or specialty and each is presented as a separate chapter. Additional studies relating to specific conditions or specialities may be added by the Evidence Team as individual chapters are revised and updated. Additional chapters relating to additional conditions or specialities may be added by the Evidence Team.
Using combinations of the subject headings and keywords set out in Appendix 1, the databases CINAHL, EMBASE and Medline were searched and search results filtered for studies published between 2015 and 2020, in English, relating primarily to adult populations and with an emphasis on systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials. Each chapter presents the evidence as illustrated below. Within each section, studies are arranged in reverse chronological order by year and, within a year, in alphabetical order by author surname. Please see Appendix 2 for an alphabetical list of sources referenced per condition or specialty. Please see Appendix 3 for an alphabetical list of all sources referenced.
Definitions: According to the OED, ‘telehealth’ is defined as the provision of health-care services remotely by means of telecommunications technology; the term was first recorded in 1975. ‘Telemedicine’ is defined as medicine practised with the assistance of telecommunications technology, often to provide care in remote locations or to reduce the need for hospital visits; the term was first recorded in 1968. ‘Mobile health’ is defined as health and medical services provided and accessed primarily using smartphones and mobile devices; the term was first recorded as such in 2000.
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